Europe soon had its own class of wealthy industrialists, and large numbers of industrial workers. New ideologies emerged as a reaction against perceived abuses of industrial society. Among these ideologies were socialism and the more radical communism , created by the German Karl Marx.
According to communism, history was a series of class struggles, and at the time industrial workers were pitted against their employers. Inevitably the workers would rise up in a worldwide revolution and abolish private property, according to Marx. Communism was also atheistic, since, according to Marx, religion was simply a tool used by the dominant class to keep the oppressed class docile. Several revolutions occurred in Europe following the Napoleonic Wars.
The goal of most of these revolutions was to establish some form of democracy in a particular nation.
History of Europe
Many were successful for a time, but their effects were often eventually reversed. Examples of this occurred in Spain, Italy, and Austria. Several European nations stood steadfastly against revolution and democracy, including Austria and Russia. Two successful revolts of the era were the Greek and Serbian wars of independence, which freed those nations from Ottoman rule. Another successful revolution occurred in the Low Countries. The Dutch found it hard to rule the Belgians, due to their Catholic religion and French language. In the s, the Belgians successfully overthrew Dutch rule, establishing the Kingdom of Belgium.
In a series of revolutions occurred in Prussia, Austria, and France. In France, the king, Louis-Philippe , was overthrown and a republic was declared. Louis Napoleon , nephew of Napoleon I was elected the republic's first president. Revolutionaries in Prussia and Italy focused more on nationalism, and most advocated the establishment of unified German and Italian states, respectively. In the city-states of Italy , many argued for a unification of all the Italian kingdoms into a single nation. Obstacles to this included the many Italian dialects spoken by the people of Italy, and the Austrian presence in the north of the peninsula.
Unification of the peninsula began in The powerful Kingdom of Sardinia also called Savoy or Piedmont formed an alliance with France and went to war with Austria in that year. The war ended with a Sardinian victory, and Austrian forces left Italy. Plebiscites were held in several cities, and the majority of people voted for union with Sardinia, creating the Kingdom of Italy under Victor Emmanuel II. In , the Italian nationalist Garibaldi led revolutionaries in an overthrow of the government of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
A plebiscite held there resulted in a unification of that kingdom with Italy. Italian forces seized the eastern Papal States in In , Italian troops conquered the Papal States , completing unification. Pope Pius IX refused to recognize the Italian government or negotiate settlement for the loss of Church land. Prussia in the middle and late parts of the 19th century was ruled by its king, Wilhelm I , and its skilled chancellor, Otto von Bismarck. In , Prussia went to war with Denmark and gained several German-speaking lands as a result. In , Prussia went to war with the Austrian Empire and won, and created a confederation of it and several German states , called the North German Confederation , setting the stage for the formation of the German Empire.pndnur89.ru/modules/block/dafidaryl/este-chico-es-un-demonio-2.php
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After years of dealing with Hungarian revolutionist, whose kingdom Austria had conquered centuries earlier, the Austrian emperor, Franz Joseph agreed to divide the empire into two parts: Austria and Hungary, and rule as both Emperor of Austria and king of Hungary. The new Austro-Hungarian Empire was created in The two peoples were united in loyalty to the monarch and Catholicism.
There were changes throughout the West in science, religion and culture between and Europe in differed greatly from its state in Most Western European nations had some degree of democracy, and two new national states had been created, Italy and Germany.
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Political parties were formed throughout the continent and with the spread of industrialism, Europe's economy was transformed, although it remained very agricultural. The 19th and early 20th centuries saw important contributions to the process of modernisation of Western art and Literature and continuing evolution in the role of religion in Western societies.
Napoleon re-established the Catholic Church in France through the Concordat of Pressure for abolition of anti-Catholic laws grew and in Parliament passed the Roman Catholic Relief Act , giving Catholics almost equal civil rights, including the right to vote and to hold most public offices.
Many Westerners became less religious in this period, although a majority of people still held traditional Christian beliefs. The publication of On the Origin of Species , by the English naturalist Charles Darwin , provided an alternative hypothesis for the development, diversification, and design of human life to the traditional poetic scriptural explanation known as Creationism. According to Darwin, only the organisms most able to adapt to their environment survived while others became extinct. Adaptations resulted in changes in certain populations of organisms which could eventually cause the creation of new species.
Modern genetics started with Gregor Johann Mendel , a German-Czech Augustinian monk who studied the nature of inheritance in plants. Geologists at the time made discoveries indicating the world was far older than most believed it to be. Early batteries were invented and a telegraph system was also invented, allowing global communication.
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In Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev published his Periodic table. The success of Mendeleev's table came from two decisions he made: The first was to leave gaps in the table when it seemed that the corresponding element had not yet been discovered. The second decision was to occasionally ignore the order suggested by the atomic weights and switch adjacent elements, such as cobalt and nickel , to better classify them into chemical families. In Europe by the 19th century, fashion had shifted away from such the artistic styles as Mannerism , Baroque and Rococo which followed the Renaissance and sought to revert to the earlier, simpler art of the Renaissance by creating Neoclassicism.
Neoclassicism complemented the intellectual movement known as the Enlightenment , which was similarly idealistic. Ingres , Canova , and Jacques-Louis David are among the best-known neoclassicists. Just as Mannerism rejected Classicism, so did Romanticism reject the ideas of the Enlightenment and the aesthetic of the Neoclassicists. Romanticism emphasized emotion and nature, and idealized the Middle Ages.
Romantic art focused on the use of color and motion in order to portray emotion, but like classicism used Greek and Roman mythology and tradition as an important source of symbolism. Another important aspect of Romanticism was its emphasis on nature and portraying the power and beauty of the natural world.
Romanticism was also a large literary movement, especially in poetry. Some of the best regarded poets of the era were women. Mary Wollstonecraft had written one of the first works of feminist philosophy, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman which called for equal education for women in and her daughter, Mary Shelley became an accomplished author best known for her novel Frankenstein , which examined some of the frightening potential of the rapid advances of science. In early 19th-century Europe, in response to industrialization , the movement of Realism emerged. Realism sought to accurately portray the conditions and hardships of the poor in the hopes of changing society.
In contrast with Romanticism, which was essentially optimistic about mankind, Realism offered a stark vision of poverty and despair.
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Similarly, while Romanticism glorified nature, Realism portrayed life in the depths of an urban wasteland. Like Romanticism, Realism was a literary as well as an artistic movement.
History of geography
Writers also sought to come to terms with the new industrial age. Leavis have described one or the other as the greatest novelist ever. In the second half of the century Anton Chekhov excelled in writing short stories and became perhaps the leading dramatist internationally of his period. American literature also progressed with the development of a distinct voice: Mark Twain produced his masterpieces Tom Sawyer and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.
In Britain's Australian colonies, bush balladeers such as Henry Lawson and Banjo Paterson brought the character of a new continent to the pages of world literature. The response of architecture to industrialisation, in stark contrast to the other arts, was to veer towards historicism. The railway stations built during this period are often called "the cathedrals of the age". Architecture during the Industrial Age witnessed revivals of styles from the distant past, such as the Gothic Revival —in which style the iconic Palace of Westminster in London was re-built to house the mother parliament of the British Empire.
Out of the naturalist ethic of Realism grew a major artistic movement, Impressionism. The Impressionists pioneered the use of light in painting as they attempted to capture light as seen from the human eye. As a direct outgrowth of Impressionism came the development of Post-Impressionism. In Australia the Heidelberg School was expressing the light and colour of Australian landscape with a new insight and vigour. The Industrial Revolution which began in Britain in the 18th century brought increased leisure time, leading to more time for citizens to attend and follow spectator sports, greater participation in athletic activities, and increased accessibility.
The bat and ball sport of cricket was first played in England during the 16th century and was exported around the globe via the British Empire. A number of popular modern sports were devised or codified in Britain during the 19th century and obtained global prominence — these include Ping Pong ,   modern tennis ,  Association Football , Netball and Rugby. The United States also developed popular international sports during this period.
English migrants took antecedents of baseball to America during the colonial period. American football resulted from several major divergences from rugby, most notably the rule changes instituted by Walter Camp. Basketball was invented in by James Naismith , a Canadian physical education instructor working in Springfield, Massachusetts in the United States. Baron Pierre de Coubertin , a Frenchman, instigated the modern revival of the Olympic Games , with the first modern Olympics were held at Athens in The years between and saw the expansion of Western power.
The Empire of Japan is the only one non-Western power involved in this new era of imperialism. Although the West had had a presence in Africa for centuries, its colonies were limited mostly to Africa's coast. The period between and is often called the Scramble for Africa , due to the competition between European nations for control of Africa. In , France occupied Algeria in North Africa.